Regardless of size or species, there is a crucial wind speed during storms where virtually all tree trunks break. Around 90 mph is the critical wind speed, under which no tree can resist punishment for any sustained period. The tree’s diameter, height, and elastic qualities have little bearing on the breaking phenomena of critical wind speed.
What is Windthrow?
Windthrow describes when a tree is uprooted from the ground by strong winds. Additionally, it ranks as the main reason why trees are uprooted. Consider that tornadoes and hurricanes often create winds of 75 mph or more to get a sense of how powerful wind must be to achieve such a feat. Therefore, wind speeds must match or surpass these rates for a tree to be pulled out of the ground.
Factors Influencing Windthrow
Although these are the wind speeds that may uproot a tree, there are additional elements that might influence windthrow. A tree’s susceptibility to windthrow may be increased by the soil’s properties, making it possible to uproot at considerably lower wind speeds. This category includes sandy soils, soft soils, and waterlogged soils. Winds as low as 7 to 30 mph in sandy or wet soil can uproot trees.
A tree may also become more vulnerable to windthrow if its root system is disturbed or low quality. Additional factors include tree species. In contrast to wind-resistant trees like California Black Oaks, trees with heavier crowns, such as conifers, are more easily uprooted. Topography is another contributing factor. Trees are more susceptible to being uprooted in some areas, such as cliffs, peaks, flatlands, or summits.
Classifications of Wind Speed
One of the main elements of the atmosphere of Earth is wind, which may take the form of a pleasant breeze or a violent storm that can be fatal. Usually, wind velocity is used to determine wind speed.
Most measurements of air movement are made of outdoor air, subject to various influences. An anemometer is often used to measure average wind speed, typically classified using a defined measuring system known as the Beaufort Scale.
The Beaufort scale includes 13 wind categories ranging from a scale of zero to 12 in an increasing wind speed order from less than one kilometer per hour to more than 120kph. This scale is helpful since it also provides descriptions of commonly observed events that allude to a matching wind speed category.
The most significant of the key variables affecting wind speed is the pressure gradient, which is caused by a graded discrepancy in atmospheric pressure at various locations. Also, pressure varies from low in some places to high in others. For instance, a mountain summit just a few miles distant from a valley could have greater air pressure. This is because the pressure between the two places often rises gradually.
Why measure the wind?
Storms should be classified according to wind speed to safeguard people and property. Also, residents of the regions likely to be impacted by severe storms should take steps to protect themselves from any potentially hazardous situations that high winds may bring, such as floods and downed power lines.
Additionally, determining wind speeds is necessary for placing windmills, which use the wind’s energy to generate power. For wind power plants, windmill businesses seek locations far from populated regions that get strong, consistent winds.
Trees More Likely to Fall From The Wind
Due to their fragile bark, which does not adequately support the tree under windy conditions, wind-prone trees are exposed. Silver maples and oaks are such trees that may reach great heights.
Also, these trees suffer greater wind damage, and their limbs fall off more quickly. So, to reduce the chance that a tree limb would damage a home or a car, if you decide to plant these wind-prone trees in your yard, be sure to place them at least 20 feet away from such objects. And if you ever have to deal with a downed tree that needs removal, contact a professional who can uproot and remove the shrubbery.
Trees With Lower Windfall Risk
While some trees struggle to tolerate wind, others can survive some of the strongest wind speeds. Therefore, knowing which trees are the most wind-resistant if you reside in a region with frequent strong winds may be a smart move. Four of the best trees for wind resistance are below.
This is a large evergreen tree indigenous to the Southeast of United States, hence its popularity in North Carolina. Its leaves are compound, which means they have two leaflets joined to a single stalk. Live oaks are often utilized in landscaping projects. They are known to last very long and withstand strong winds.
A living maple tree is deeply rooted in the ground. During the autumn, the leaves’ hues shift from green to yellow, to crimson. Native to North America, maple trees thrive in damp soil. Additionally, they are renowned for generating sap used to manufacture maple syrup.
The most resilient of all Maple trees is said to be the Norway Maple, since they can resist extreme growth circumstances, including droughts, strong winds, and floods that would kill many other trees.
The crepe myrtle, a deciduous shrub endemic to eastern North America, is another huge, wind-resistant tree. The leaves of this tree are complex, alternating, and pinnatifid. Its blossoms are small, white, and fragrant. Crepe myrtles are often utilized in aesthetic landscaping, hedges, and plantings.
The bald cypress is a hardy tree with a long lifespan and dense canopies. Because of their deep roots in muddy soil and full water reserves, they can resist floods, droughts, and even storms at times when other plants would perish from a lack of moisture or extreme heat waves without regular rains.
How to Tell if a Tree is in Danger Of Falling
Even while all trees are susceptible to collapsing or losing branches during windstorms, there are several signs to check for that may help determine if the trees close to your house are more at risk. They consist of the following:
- The tree unexpectedly starts to lean or shift
- The tree has several trunks
- A tree with a significant hollow
- Branches fall off seemingly at random.
- On or underneath the tree, mushrooms start to grow.
- Recent Fall off of other trees nearby
It’s essential to consider wind resistance when planting trees in yards. A tree vulnerable to strong winds may lose branches during a storm, damaging your home, your automobiles, or a neighbor’s home. Therefore, before planting a tree in your yard, make sure you have considered the possibilities of them falling on your property.